# artificial lighting strategies

It was evident that both protein and carbohydrates did not influence any of the oil production parameters. Therefore, reduction in the use of artificial lighting is vital. ASTM, West Conshohocken, EN-European Standard, (2003) UNE-EN 14214 - automotive fuel - fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engine - requirements and test methods. Artiﬁcial lighting systems have been used extensively in commercial greenhouses until the 1980s [31]. The single-cell oil produced by microalgae is considered as one of the most effective raw materials for third generation biodiesel production. Improving Lighting Controls; Lighting can be controlled with the use of various sensors to allow the operation of lamps whenever they are needed. 0000136280 00000 n In terms of lipid content, this photoperiod showed the lowest value among the long-term photoperiods. The dominant fatty acids were palmitic acid (C16:0), α-linolenic acid (C18:3n6) and linoleic acid (C18:2n6) for all the treatments. 686 135 Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 37:735–741, Mitra M, Patidar SK, George B, Shah F, Mishra S (2015) A euryhaline Nannochloropsis gaditana with potential for nutraceutical (EPA) and biodiesel production. Agriculture Handbook No 8. Algal Res 2:333–340, Abu-Ghosh S, Fixler D, Dubinsky Z, Iluz D (2015) Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology. The kinematic viscosity of biodiesel is another significant fuel property. Here are Some Photography Lighting Tips and Basics: Lighting Setup: The Importance of Position. Conversely, Table 4 showed that all conditions tested were lower than that of international standards established for kinematic viscosity. Additionally lighting should reflect indirectly into the eyes from large surfaces, such as walls and ceilings. Thus, for processes to be considered technically viable, it has been theoretically established that NER should be greater than 1 and negative NEB [40]. Eleven majority FAs were identified and, as expected, there was variability in FA composition for the different light conditions. Can J Biochem Physiol 37:911–917, Watt BK, Merrill AL (1963) Composition of foods. 0000099891 00000 n As shown in Fig. These results show that Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05 can store sufficient energy to sustain cell metabolism for periods of up to 2 h uninterrupted in the dark, without affecting the biomass productivity. provision of artificial lighting and the fluctuating . Among these factors, the light influences directly the photosynthesis mechanism being an essential factor in reaching optimal growth conditions for the culture [11]. The authors are grateful to the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) (Grant Number 001) for the financial support. Cell concentration was evaluated gravimetrically by filtering a known volume of culture medium through a 0.45 µm filter (Millex FG, Billerica-MA, USA) and drying at 60 °C. The fatty acid methyl esters were identified by comparison of the retention times with the authentic standards from FAME Mix-37 (P/N 47885-U, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO USA) and quantified through area normalization by software T2100p Chromatography Station (Plus Edition) v9.04. Eduardo Jacob-Lopes. Artificial lighting strategies in photobioreactors for bioenergy production by, $$[{\text{NER}} = \sum {\text{Eout}}/\sum {\text{Ein}}]$$, $$[{\text{NEB}} = \sum {\text{inputs}} - \sum {\text{outputs}}]$$, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1761-0, Engineering: Sustainable Inventive Systems. 0000099654 00000 n Figure 1a and b shows the weights (variables) and scores (treatments), respectively, from the two major principal components. 0000187066 00000 n 0000050462 00000 n J Appl Phycol 23:721–726, Falkowsk PG, Raven JA (1997) Aquatic photosynthesis. %%EOF Under these conditions, saturated fatty acids (51.6–85.7%) were the majority for all short light/dark cycles, followed by monounsaturated ones (8.9–32.7%). Among all the conditions tested, the best values for NER (0.64) and NEB (17.13) were found at a frequency photoperiod of 24 t/d, followed by 48 t/d with a NER and NEB of 0.58 and 20.27, respectively. However, for the different long-term photoperiods, the light regime significantly influenced the production of microalgal biomass. In this sense, Fig. 0000112086 00000 n Florescent light no. In the frequencies’ photoperiods there was a balance between PUFA and MUFA. Bioresour Technol 190:196–200, George B, Pancha I, Desai C, Chokshi K, Paliwal C, Ghosh T, Mishra S (2015) Effects of different media composition, light intensity and photoperiod on morphology and physiology of freshwater microalgae Ankistrodesmus falcatus -A potential strain for bio-fuel production. First, dim lighting can cause eye strain and headaches, because, when lighting is inadequate, the eyes are forced to work much harder in order to see. Thus, regardless of the photoperiod strategy adopted, the decision-making to replace the energy matrix with clean sources can bring immediate results to reduce environmental impacts [41]. Besides, when assessing the environmental impacts related to the different artificial illuminations strategies (considering a functional unit of 1 day of operation), in a system continuously illuminated (long-term photoperiod 24:0), we can estimate (Table 6) an ecotoxicity of 3.10 × 101 CTUe, energy resource of 9.73 MJ, global warming potential of 4.50 kg CO2 eq, photochemical oxidation potential of 1.00 × 10−1 kg O3 eq, acidification potential of 2.40 × 10−2 kg SO2 eq, eutrophication potential of 8.57 × 10−3 kg N eq and ozone depletion potential of 1.37 × 10−6 kg CFC-11 eq. 0000007588 00000 n Besides, the functional unit considered was the energy demand for 1 operation day in the microalgal photobioreactors under the modeling of long-term, frequency and short photoperiods. This is why assessment of the benefits and drawbacks of flexible spatial arrangements, and potential strategies for expansion, deserve close consideration early in the design process. Daylight not only replaces artificial lighting, reducing lighting energy use, but also influences both heating and cooling loads. 0000110521 00000 n To calculate the net energy balance (NEB) $$[{\text{NEB}} = \sum {\text{inputs}} - \sum {\text{outputs}}]$$ the inputs were considered as the energy required for lighting the photobioreactor per day and the outputs as the energy produced per day. ANP, Brasília, Ramos MJ, Fernández CM, Casas A, Rodríguez L, Pérez A (2009) Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties. This high-viscosity affects the atomization of a fuel on injection into the combustion chamber and, thereby, ultimately the formation of engine deposits. 1c. Energy Savings: 15-45% 0000112953 00000 n 0000110003 00000 n 1a indicated that the photoperiod of 22:2 h was the condition that presented the equilibrium between the electric energy saving and biomass productivity. The productivities of the process, chemical composition, calorific value of biomass, and properties of biodiesel were significantly influenced by the photoperiod. The artificial lighting should correspond to the colour temperature of the daylight. ISO 14040:2006(E) Environmental management – life cycle assessment – principles and framework, Xue C, Goh QY, Tan W, Hossain I, Chen WN, Lau R (2011) Lumostatic strategy for microalgae cultivation utilizing image analysis and chlorophyll a content as design parameters. LinkedIn used a similar strategy in 2011 when piloting a new wireless lighting control system in an office building more than 20 years old. Natural lighting has been proven to increase health and comfort levels for building occupants. Artiﬁcial lighting systems allow extension of the greenhouse production over a period in the year and increase the yield of the greenhouse, even in favorable climate zones and periods [32]. The CN of a diesel fuel is determined by the ignition delay time. As the parameters NER and NEB are mainly based on biomass productivity, they were clustered together on the top left-hand of the plot. Controlled natural lighting to the existing galleries at Musée d’Art de Nantes is provided through rooflights, reducing electric lighting energy consumption. The system was built in 4 mm thick glass, an internal diameter of 7.5 cm, a height of 75 cm, and a nominal working volume of 2.0 L. The dispersion system for the reactor consisted of a 1.5 cm diameter air diffuser located in the center of the column. 1b), as a strategy to improve the performance of the process. 0000099961 00000 n 1, 1695 (2019). The international standards requires a minimum CN of 45 (ANP 255), 47 (ASTM D6751), or 51 (EN14214). For this reason, the effects of short light/dark cycle on biomass productivity are shown in Fig. [22] showed values of the 16.3 mg/L h. Besides, similar results were evidenced in cyanobacterium Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli by Jacob-Lopes [8]. Furthermore, the light regime in which microalgal cultures are submitted is considered a determining factor in the cell productivity and chemical composition of biomass [10]. "A large, even over-scale ceiling fixture can add illumination and drama, and also trick the eye into thinking the space is much larger than it actually is," say interior designer and Lamps Plus trends producer Michael Murphy.. That doesn't mean you should totally nix all other lighting sources, though. Biochemical composition and energy value of the microalgal biomass in different photoperiods. 0000142031 00000 n 0000131616 00000 n 0000040277 00000 n A future change of use – or change of layout – could undermine lighting strategies adopted in the original design. Artificial lighting leads to premature macular degeneration over the years by over saturating the blue spectrum. In this sense, Table 5 shows the energy balance of microalgae culture in different light regimes. 0000006227 00000 n Daylighting optimizes natural sunlight entry into a building to minimize the need for artificial lighting. 0000026626 00000 n 0000112783 00000 n The use of artificial lighting is crucial in agriculture and gardening, particularly in indoor cultivation. 4b explained that the short photoperiods and 12:12 h (light: dark) are linked to higher CN, OS and SFA content, whereas the other long-term photoperiods were associated with higher PUFA content. Consequently, these pollutants create substantial risks to public health, especially where there is no control over emissions. December 23, 2015. Comparatively, Krzemińska et al. The primary raw materials for the photosynthetic microalgae cultivation are nutrients, carbon dioxide, and light energy. A comparison of these properties of biodiesel from microalgal oils and US [34], European [35], and Brazilian [36] biodiesel standards is shown in Table 4. Energies 5:1532–1553, Illman AM, Scragg AH, Shales SW (2000) Increase in Chlorella strains calorific values when grown in low nitrogen medium. The incubation conditions used were 30 °C, the photon flux density of 30 µmol m−2 s−1 and a photoperiod of 12 h. Measurements were carried out in a bubble column photobioreactor (Tecnal, Piracicaba-SP, Brazil). Note that fluorescent bulbs and neon lighting are halogen sources. The cell concentration was monitored every 24 h during the growth phase of the microorganism. 0000143320 00000 n At the same time, equal volumes of cell suspension were withdrawn from the bioreactor. Artificial lighting design makes the most of its advances in lamp characteristics: CRI, LPW, LLF, and lamp life of common sources are continually improving. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, Maroneze MM, Siqueira SF, Vendruscolo RG, Wagner R, de Menezes CR, Zepka LQ, Jacob-Lopes E (2016) The role of photoperiods on photobioreactors–a potential strategy to reduce costs. 0000039721 00000 n ... Optimization Strategies … Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900, Brazil, Mariana Manzoni Maroneze, Mariany Costa Deprá, Leila Queiroz Zepka & Eduardo Jacob-Lopes, You can also search for this author in 1a) [23, 24]. The sizes and locations of windows should be based on the cardinal directions rather than their effect … Artificial lighting strategies in photobioreactors for bioenergy production by Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05. 0000143682 00000 n 0000222984 00000 n 0000021897 00000 n The calorific value is another parameter that must be considered to determine the feasibility of biofuel feedstock production from microalgae [27]. Figure 2 also shows the biochemical composition in terms of the content of total proteins and carbohydrates for all light conditions tested. 0000223258 00000 n https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1761-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1761-0, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 0000109831 00000 n ), thereby reducing artificial lighting requirements and saving energy. Data in brief 24(1):103900–103903, Qu Z, Duan P, Cao X, Liu M, Lin L, Li M (2019) Comparison of monoculture and mixed culture (Scenedesmus obliquus and wild algae) for C, N, and P removal and lipid production.